Solving the Tragedy of the Commons: Migrate or Randomly Associate
Public goods games involve interactions between players or organisms who generate a commonly available good (producers, cooperators) and those who consume it without producing (freeloaders, defectors, cheaters) - several examples in biological systems are known. That freeloading is a better individual choice is known as the Tragedy of the Commons; producers always have a lower fitness, which can lead to population extinction. However, several mathematical solutions to this dilemma have been proposed. I will present two more, in the context of evolutionary games - nonrational stochastic players, and fitness-based migration - both of which can lead to a stable coexistence between producers and freeloaders. Connections with experimental results will also be presented.